Intuitive Understanding of the Clausius Definition of Entropy

This post came from my answer to a Physics Stack Exchange question. In classical thermodynamics, we define the change in a system’s entropy when it absorbs heat $\delta Q$ at temperature $T$ to be $\delta S = \frac{\delta Q}{T}$. Why? The important thing here is that in classical (Clausius’s) thermodynamics there was found to be […]